Alexandrium minutum

Super Group: 
Halim 1960
Alexandrium ibericum Balech 1985
Alexandrium insuetum Balech 1985


Armoured marine planktonic dinoflagellate. Cells are small, nearly spherical to ellipsoidal, somewhat dorsoventrally flattened and occasionally longer than wide.  This species is widely associated with toxic blooms in coastal regions. Cells are sinlge with a characteristic ventral pore on the first apical plate 1'. Thecal plates thin. Thecal surface ornementation can vary from light to heavy reticulation (mostly confined to the hypotheca) with small scatterred pores. Intercalary bands are present. Large range in size : 15-30 µm in length and 13-24 µm in transdiameter width. Po, 4', 6'', 6c, 10s, 5''', 2''''. The epitheca is larger than the hypotheca. The apical pore complex (APC) is oval to broadly triangular and pointed posteriorly. The apical pore plate (Po) is large, narrow and oval with a wide comma-shaped foramen. The Po can be either in direct contact with the first apical plate (1'), or indirectly connected via a thin suture (thread-like process). A characteristic ventral pore is located on the slender and rhomboidal 1' plate. the distinctive sixth precingular plate (6'') is long and narrow. Associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) events in coastal regions around the world. produce dense reddish-brown red tides. Toxin: GTX1, GTX2, GTX3 and GTX4 (Oshima et al. 1989)

Body_length: 15-30 µm
Body_width: 13-24 µm

Type species

Alexandrium minutum is the type species for this genus

Type illustration / Type locality / Type specimen

Type locality: Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria Haror, Egypt. 


Substrate: planktonic
Sociability: solitary
Salinity: marine
Salinity: variable (estuary)
pH: neutral

Feeding: Photosynthetic

Life cycle

Phases_alternance: haplontic
Generation: <1 month

Reproduction_mode: asexual_binary
Reproduction_mode: sexual_heterothallic
Resting_stage: cysts_sexual
Resting_stage: cysts_asexual

Feeding behaviour


Mode of locomotion

Two flagella typical for Dinophyceae
Flagellum: 2
Motility: motile_swimming

Attached phylogeny

Observation site(s)


Displaying 1 - 8 of 8
Association with... Region origin Name of site In reference...
Amoebophrya ceratii-Clade-1 Penzé estuary
Parvilucifera infectans Penzé estuary
Parvilucifera infectans Rance estuary
Parvilucifera rostrata Penzé estuary
Parvilucifera sinerae Catalunya Harbor of Arenys de Mar
Parvilucifera sinerae Catalunya Harbor of Arenys de Mar
Parvilucifera sp. Catalunya Harbor of Tarragona
Parvilucifera sp. Penzé estuary
Erard-Le Denn E, Chrétiennot-Dinet M-J, Probert I (2000) First Report of Parasitism on the Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 50:109 - 113. doi: 10.1006/ecss.1999.0537