Montipora verrucosa

Super Group: 
Lamarck, 1816
Manopora planiuscula Dana, 1846
Montipora ambigua Bernard, 1897
Montipora conferta Nemenzo, 1967
Montipora planiuscula (Dana, 1846)
Porites verrucosa Lamarck, 1816


Original diagnosis : Corallum may he either thick, explanate, and incrusting, or massive, the thick hut narrow free edge being supported by an epitheca. The former method of growth, by the continued incrusting of previous irregular growths, may result in the formation of clumps of irregular, stout, branching processes; or, again,by the  edge creeping under the growing mass, free, rounded coralia are formed. witht)ut definite points of attachment, and completelj' covered by the coral.
In the massive method of growth the corallum thickens by the steady growth of the coenenchyma in the more central regions of the colony. Calicles numerous, conspicuous as open holes, large (about1.0 millimeters), deeply immersed, except near the growing edges or on surfaces which have grown in unfavorable positions; in these cases the calicles are smaller and open on the smooth surface of the coenenchyma. Two and sometimes three cycles of short, thick septa, more or less equally developed, projecting but a very little way into the polyp cavity, and leaving a large open fossa, in the depths of which the septa fuse to form an irregular columella, .\djoiiiing calicles are sometimes separated from one another by a single thin, perforated plate. Tabulae may be formed in the lengthening
calicles of massive growths. The coenenchyma shows the usual streaming layer, which bends upwaid toward tlie surface, attaining in the massive forms a great thickness (6 to 7 cm.). This reticulum is slightly echinulate at the surface. The interstices usually swell up into nearly symmetrical nipple-shaped papillae from 2 to  3 mm. high and 2 mm. thick. These papillae exactly till up an interstice, tiieir walls descending directly into the polyp cavities. They  are variously developed, sometimes crowded, and irregularly swollen and fused. As the corallum thickens in the massive forms the polyp cavities fill up with a very loose open ti.ssue (columella formation) which is in marked contrast to that of the solid reticulum, which streams so directly upward as here and there almost to suggest the presence of trabecule.

Observation site(s)