Lagodon rhomboides

Super Group: 
Linnaeus 1766
Sparus rhomboides (Linnaeus 1766)


Diagnosis_Genus: Lagodon Holbrook. Jaws protactile; molar teeth in several rows, sub-conical, with rounded apices, and paved; incisor teeth broad, trenchant, and cleft at their cutting margins; branchial rays five.

Diagnosis_Species: Sparus rhomboides Linnaeus. S. cauda integra, dorso canaliculato, corpore luteo-lineato B. 6. D. I2/23. P. I6. V. I/6. A. 2/I5. C. 20. Brown. jam. 446. Sparus striis longitudinalibus varius. Catesb. car. 2. p. 4. t. 4. Perca rhomboides. Habitat in America. D. Garden Saltwater Bream. Dentes obtusi. Fossula dorsalis ut in Sciaenis. Macula nigra inter radices P. pectoralium & dorsalis. P. ventralis, & analis caudalisque fulvae.

Body_adults_length: 9-17.3 cm
Body_adults_length_max: 437 mm (Darcy, 1985)
Body_egg_length: 0.99-1.05 mm (Powell & Greene, 2002)
Body_larvae_flexion: 5.0 mm (Powell & Greene, 2002)
Body_larvae_transformation: 12.0 mm (Powell & Greene, 2002)
Body_larvae_postflexion: 8.9-11.9 mm (Powell & Greene, 2002)
Body_larvae_length: < 12 mm (
Body_juvenile_length: < 80 mm (
Weight_max: 1.5 kg (Fishbase)
Sequence_Cytb: AF240726 (Chiba et al., 2009)
Hatching_stage_duration: 48 hours (Darcy, 1985)
Larvae-2.9mm_stage_duration: 96 hours (Darcy, 1985)


The name comes from the Greek lagos (hare) and odontos (tooth), referring to the large incisor teeth, and the Greek rhombos (rhombus) and -o + eidos denoting likeness of form, referring to the rhomboidal body shape (Darcy, 1985).

Type species

The type species of the genus Lagodon is Sparus rhomboides (Linnaeus, 1766).

Type illustration / Type locality / Type specimen

Type locality: Charleston


Lagodon rhomboides lives in Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (USA), Bermuda, and northern Gulf of Mexico to Florida Keys, USA and Yucatan, Mexico. Also in northern coast of Cuba; absent in Bahamas or rest of Antilles (Fishbase).
Pinfish are basically omnivores, but have been shown to undergo several transitions of food habits with growth. Larvae and postlarvae (<20 mm SL) are planktivorous, feeding mainly on copepods. Small juveniles (approximately 20-35 mm SL) are primarily carnivorous, feeding on shrimp postlarvae, amphipods, mysids, harpacticoid copepods, invertebrate eggs, and other animal matter. Large juveniles (approximately 36-80 mm SL) are basically omnivorous. Adults are omnivorous and quite broad in their food habits (Darcy, 1985).
Lagodon rhomboides migrations consist primarily of inshore-offshore seasonal movements. Most pinfish leave shallow water in winter and move offshore (Darcy, 1985).
Lagodon rhomboides'eggs are spawned offshore. Larvae move inshore before metamorphosing (Darcy, 1985).
The pinfish is a warm-temperate species with a fairly broad range of temperature tolerance (Darcy, 1985).
Habitat: coastal
Substrate: water
Sociability: gregarious
Salinity: marine
Salinity: estuarine
Salinity: freshwater
Temperature: 10-35°C
Depth_larvae: pelagic (Powell & Greene, 2002)
Depth_eggs: pelagic (Powell & Greene, 2002)
Depth_juvenile: shallow water (Powell & Greene, 2002)
Depth_adult (mature): open water (Powell & Greene, 2002)
Depth_larvae: offshore (Powell & Greene, 2002)
Oxygen_level: oxic
Temperature: 7-34°C (Darcy, 1985)
Causality of migration: sexual_reproduction
Temporality_of_migration: seasonal

Life cycle

The maximum life span of Lagodon rhomboides listed is 7 years (  Although CaIdweli in 1957 estimated that his largest specimen in this study (328 mm SL) from Cedar Key, FL, was bat least 7 years old, it was stated that few individuals live more than 3 years (Darcy, 1985).
Sexual maturity is reached at about one year, when the fish has reached 80 to 100 mm in length. Spawning season takes place in the fall and winter with eggs that are broadcast in the water by the female, then fertilized by the male. The number of eggs varies; approximately 7,000 to 90,000 that hatch after 48 hours. Young are not protected by adults (
No sexual dimorphism in body shape or color has been reported in Lagodon rhomboides (Darcy, 1985).

Longevity: 1 to 3 years (Darcy, 1985)
Reproduction_mode: sexual (oviparous)
Fertility_period: seasonal (during late fall and winter) (Powell & Greene, 2002)
Spawning_method: external fertilization in the water column
Generation_time: 3 to 12 months(Powell & Greene, 2002)
Fecondity_numer_of_eggs_per_adult: 7700-39200 eggs per female (Pensacola, Darcy, 1985)

Feeding behaviour


Mode of locomotion

Motility: motile_swimming


Observation site(s)


Displaying 1 - 2 of 2
Association with... Region origin Name of site In reference...
Amyloodinium ocellatum Mississippi Sound
Amyloodinium ocellatum Gulf Coast Research Laboratory